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ROYAL AIR FORCE. COMMON CORE AND DEPLOYMENT SKILLS AIDE-MEMOIRE

BLEEDING

WARNING. If possible wear disposable gloves, always wash your hands with soap and water before and after treatment. If you have any open wounds always cover them with a waterproof adhesive dressing

YOUR AIMS

◉ Control bleeding.

◉ Minimise shock.

◉ To minimise infection.

◉ Evacuate to medical aid.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Expose wound by removing or cutting clothing.

◉ Apply direct pressure over or around the wound for at least 10 minutes.

◉ Raise and support the injured limb.

◉ If necessary, lie casualty down.

◉ Build up pads around any protruding objects.

◉ Bandage a pad firmly in place overwound.

◉ If blood seeps through dressing put another firmly over the top of the first dressing.

◉ If blood seeps through the second dressing, remove both dressings and apply a fresh dressing, accurately, to the point of bleeding.

◉ Support the injured part.

◉ Treat casualty for shock.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid and monitor casualty.

INDIRECT PRESSURE

◉ If direct pressure cannot be applied or does not stop the bleeding, use indirect pressure on the appropriate pressure point.

◉ If the wound is located over a joint, bend the joint as firmly as possible over a pad to stop blood flow. Remember this cuts off blood supply to the limb.

It is essential to release the pressure on a pressure point every 10 minutes

FRACTURES

YOUR AIMS

◉ Minimise blood loss and infection.

◉ Minimise movement at injury site.

◉ Minimise swelling and pain.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Evidence of a blow or fall.

◉ Possible sound of the bone breaking.

◉ Pain and deformity.

◉ Loss of function.

◉ Swelling and bruising.

◉ Possible crepitus (grinding of bone).

◉ Shock.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Do not move casualty until injury is stabilised (unless in danger).

◉ Steady and support limb/body as applicable.

◉ Stop bleeding and dress open fracture, if applicable.

◉ Immobilise the fracture with suitable splints.

◉ Elevate the limb if possible.

◉ Treat for shock.

◉ Evacuate to medical aid, minimising further aggravation of injury.

◉ Check circulation beyond the bandaging every 10 minutes.

SPINAL INJURY

YOUR AIMS

◉ To maintain an open airway and resuscitate, if necessary.

◉ To prevent further injury.

◉ To arrange urgent removal to hospital.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Pain in neck or back at site of injury.

◉ Step or twist in curve of spine.

◉ Tenderness of spine.

◉ Loss of control over limbs.

◉ Movement weak or absent.

◉ Abnormal/loss of sensations.

◉ Loss of bladder/bowel control.

◉ Breathing difficulty.

SPINAL INJURY CAUSES (Examples)

◉ Falling from a height.

◉ Falling awkwardly.

◉ Being thrown from a motorbike.

◉ Participation in contact sports.

◉ Heavy object falling on or across the back or neck.

◉ Injury to the head or face.

YOUR ACTIONS

Conscious casualty - support only:

◉ Reassure casualty and prevent movement.

◉ Seek specialist medical aid without delay.

◉ Steady and support the head in the neutral head position, in which the head, neck and spine all aligned.

◉ Monitor and record vital signs.

NEUTRAL HEAD POSITION

Unconscious casualty:

◉ Steady and support head in a neutral head position, which is the head, neck and spine all aligned.

◉ If necessary, open casualty's airway using the jaw thrust method, taking care not to tilt the casualty's neck.

◉ Check casualty's breathing, if breathing, continue to support head and neck.

◉ If casualty is not breathing and shows no signs of circulation proceed with administering Rescue Breaths and CPR.

◉ Monitor and record vital signs.

JAW THRUST

SKULL FRACTURE

YOUR AIMS

◉ To maintain an open airway and resuscitate, if necessary.

◉ To prevent further injury.

◉ To arrange urgent removal to hospital.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Wound, bruise or soft depression on the head.

◉ Impaired consciousness.

◉ Deterioration of response level.

◉ Leakage of blood or clear fluid from nose or ear.

◉ Bloodshot eyes.

◉ Distortion of the head or face.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Help conscious casualty to lie down, try not to turn head in case of neck injury.

◉ Control any bleeding from the scalp, look for and treat any other injuries.

◉ Allow any fluid to drain and cover with sterile pad.

◉ Call for medical aid.

◉ Regularly monitor and record vital signs, level of response and breathing,

◉ If the casualty is unconscious, open airway using the jaw thrust method and check breathing. Be prepared to give rescue breaths and chest compressions if needed.

PENETRATING CHEST WOUND

YOUR AIMS

◉ Support the chest wall.

◉ Seal any wound and maintain breathing.

◉ Minimise shock.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Sharp pain at injury site.

◉ Pain exacerbated by heavy breathing or coughing.

◉ An open wound may be present.

◉ Signs of internal bleeding (shock).

◉ If lung punctured, then frothy blood could be coughed up and lips may be blue (cyanosis).

◉ Paradoxical breathing (unequal chest movement).

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ If casualty has a fractured rib with no other complications, the limb on the injured side should be supported in a sling and the casualty evacuated to medical aid.

If complications are present:

◉ Immediately cover a puncture wound with your, or the casualty's, hand.

◉ Cover the wound with a sterile dressing.

◉ Cover dressing with airtight seal using plastic bag, foil or kitchen film on 3 sides only.

◉ Support a conscious casualty in a comfortable position, inclined to the injured side.

◉ If the casualty becomes unconscious, check breathing and pulse, and be prepared to resuscitate.

◉ Place unconscious casualty in recovery position on the injured side.

BURNS

YOUR AIMS

◉ Halt burning process.

◉ Relieve pain and swelling.

◉ Maintain an open airway and resuscitate, if necessary.

◉ Treat injuries.

◉ Minimise infection risk.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Severe pain.

◉ Reddening and swelling.

◉ Peeling skin and blisters.

◉ Skin grey, pale or waxy.

◉ Delayed shock.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ For major burns, lie casualty down.

◉ Flood injured part with cold water for about 10 minutes.

◉ While cooling burn, check airway, breathing and circulation, be prepared to resuscitate.

◉ Remove constricting items from injured area before swelling begins.

◉ Carefully remove burned clothing, unless sticking to burn.

◉ Cover area with sterile, non-fluffy dressing.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid.

◉ Monitor and record breathing and pulse.

DO NOT touch the injured area or burst any blisters

DO NOT apply lotions, creams or fats to the injury

DO NOT remove anything sticking to the burn

DO NOT overcool the casualty, this may lead to hypothermia

HEAT EXHAUSTION

YOUR AIMS

◉ Replace lost fluid and salt.

◉ Cool casualty down.

◉ Obtain medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Headache, dizziness and confusion.

◉ Appetite loss and nausea.

◉ Sweating, and pale clammy skin.

◉ Cramps in limbs or abdomen.

◉ Rapid, weakening pulse and breathing.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Lie casualty down in a cool place.

◉ Raise and support legs.

◉ If conscious, give plenty of water, or oral rehydration solution.

◉ If recovery is rapid, advise casualty to consult a doctor later.

◉ If casualty becomes unconscious, place in recovery position and arrange evacuation to medical aid.

◉ Check and record breathing, pulse and response level every 10 minutes.

HEATSTROKE

YOUR AIMS

◉ To lower the casualty's body temperature.

◉ Arrange immediate evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Headache, dizziness and discomfort.

◉ Restlessness and confusion.

◉ Hot, flushed and dry skin.

◉ A rapid deterioration in the level of response.

◉ A full bounding pulse.

◉ Body temperature above 40°C (104°F).

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Lie the casualty down in a cool place, remove as much outer clothing as possible.

◉ Using tepid water to cool, or by fanning the casualty, bring their body temperature down gradually.

◉ Be prepared to resuscitate, if necessary.

COLD INJURIES (FROSTBITE)

YOUR AIMS

◉ To prevent further damage to the affected area.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Pins and needles.

◉ Paleness followed by numbness.

◉ A hardening and stiffening of the skin.

◉ The skin may be white; then mottled and blue; eventually turning black.

◉ On recovery, red, hot, painful and blistered.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Remove constrictive items such as gloves, boots and rings.

◉ Dry and gently warm the affected part.

◉ Avoid rubbing as this may damage skin and tissues.

◉ Move the casualty into the warm, if possible.

◉ Place the affected part in warm water, if available.

◉ Dry and dress the affected part.

◉ Raise and support the limb to reduce swelling.

HEAT EXHAUSTION

YOUR AIMS

◉ Replace lost fluid and salt.

◉ Cool casualty down.

◉ Obtain medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Headache, dizziness and confusion.

◉ Appetite loss and nausea.

◉ Sweating, and pale clammy skin.

◉ Cramps in limbs or abdomen.

◉ Rapid, weakening pulse and breathing.

YOUR ACTIONS

◉ Lie casualty down in a cool place.

◉ Raise and support legs.

◉ If conscious, give plenty of water, or oral rehydration solution.

◉ If recovery is rapid, advise casualty to consult a doctor later.

◉ If casualty becomes unconscious, place in recovery position and arrange evacuation to medical aid.

◉ Check and record breathing, pulse and response level every 10 minutes.

YOUR AIMS

◉ To lower the casualty's body temperature.

◉ Arrange immediate evacuation to medical aid.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

◉ Headache, dizziness and discomfort.

◉ Restlessness and confusion.

◉ Hot, flushed and dry skin.

◉ Arrange evacuation to medical aid, if necessary.

◉ Protect from further damage.

◉ All cases of cold injury must be reported to the Unit Medical Officer as soon as possible.

IF AN AREA IS FROZEN AND BLACK, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO THAW

DO NOT PUT THE AFFECTED PART NEAR DIRECT HEAT

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