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J. ARNOLD, S. SINTON, illustrated by DARKO PAVLOVIC
US COMMANDERS OF WORLD WAR II. NAVY AND USMC

H: THE ATLANTIC

H1: Rear Admiral Daniel V. Gallery

Rear Admiral Gallery was the commander of Task group 22.3. Rear Admiral Gallery wears the gray working uniform introduced in 1942 to replace the khaki working uniform. The shirt was the same cut as the khaki working shirt, with two breast pockets and no shoulder straps. Small silver rank stars were worn on each collar and the tie was plain black silk, as worn with the blue service coat. The Вј-inch wide web belt was also gray and the buckle was brass. The open frame buckle was a common variation from the more usual solid, covered buckle. The overseas cap was also of the same cut as the khaki model, but made up in gray cotton. On the left side of the curtain of the cap, a miniature of the service cap insignia was worn, while a small insignia of rank was worn on the right side.

H2: Admiral Francis "Frog" Low

Admiral Low was commander of the 10th Fleet, but was actually the mastermind behind the war against U-boats in the Atlantic. He wears the service dress blues, this time made of heavy serge. Admiral Low's cap is the universal combination cap with blue-black woolen cover, but he wears the embroidered prewar cap insignia. The pre-1941 cap insignia and buttons displayed an eagle looking to its left. Heraldically unfortunate, this configuration was changed in 1941 so that the eagle looked to its right. Interestingly, the overall design was not changed; only the eagle's head was modified, resulting in a somewhat unbalanced design for the new buttons.

H3: Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk

Rear Admiral Kirk was the commander of the Western Naval Task Force on D-Day. The overcoat was often worn in the cold European climate. It was made of heavy blue-black woolen material, was double-breasted, lined with black sateen, and had two rows of one-inch gilt USN buttons. This coat was normally worn with the four large buttons fastened, leaving the collar open, but could be worn with the collar closed by means of a tab and black button on the underside of the collar. The waist was fitted, with a half belt in the back, and the skirts were full, extending one-third of the way between the knee and the ground. The cuffs had no stars but did display rank rings made of lustrous black braid.

H4: Officer's Cap Insignia, 1941.

The shield and eagle are in silver, the fouled anchors in gold. The device could be manufactured in one or two pieces.

This is the Pacific War's most famous photo, the flag-raising on Iwo Jima. When Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestal, saw the flag rise over Mount Suribachi, he turned to General Holland Smith and said, "Holland, the raising of that flag means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years." (National Archives)


Fighters fly in formation during surrender ceremonies in Tokyo Bay. Secretary of the Navy, James V. Forrestal, wrote to discharged navy veterans about what the US Navy had achieved in the four years following Pearl Harbor: "It crushed two enemy fleets at once, receiving their surrenders only four months apart. It brought our land-based air power within bombing range of the enemy, and set our ground armies on the beachheads of final victory. It performed the multitude of tasks necessary to support these military operations. No other navy at any time has done so much." (National Archives)

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