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J. ARNOLD, S. SINTON, illustrated by DARKO PAVLOVIC
US COMMANDERS OF WORLD WAR II. NAVY AND USMC

B: THE RETREAT

B1: Major James Devereaux

Major Devereaux was commander of the marine detachment on Wake Island in 1942. He is shown in the marine officer's early field dress, basically unchanged since World War One. He wears the khaki officer's shirt (always without shoulder straps), brown leather Sam Brown belt, khaki breeches and high black boots. He wears the M1917 steel helmet and a web belt with leather holster for the M1917 Colt automatic pistol.

B2: Lieutenant-Commander John D. Bulkeley

Lieutenant-Commander Bulkeley was commander of PT (Patrol Torpedo) Squadron 3. For enlisted personnel exposed to extreme conditions, special protective clothing was authorized. Such clothing was quite popular and was shared and traded widely, resulting in its use by personnel not originally intended by the Regulations. Thus, Lieutenant-Commander Bulkeley wears the submarine protective jacket, made of blue-black wool, fastened with six black composition buttons. Pictures show him wearing such a jacket with an extremely large collar, possibly a hood. His cap is the service dress combination cap, so-called because ft consisted of a lower portion, the frame, and a removable top. The tops could be changed for various orders of dress; blue tops were always of wool, while white, khaki, and gray tops were made of cotton.

B3: Admiral Husband Kimmel

Admiral Kimmel was Commander-in-Chief Pacific Fleet in November of 1941. He wears full dress blue, which was only worn on special occasions. The frock coat was double-breasted with five gilt USN buttons in two rows, the lower four of which were functional. The coat was made from blue-black wool, and the skirts reached to the top of the knee. Each cuff carried gold braid rings, as on the blue service coat. The trousers would have been of the same material as the coat, with two-inch gold stripes down the outside seams. The black silk cocked hat was edged with 1½-inch gold braid, with the cockade (obscured here) trimmed similarly. The tops of the epaulets were gold braid, with hanging bullions 5/8 inch in diameter. An embroidered anchor and three stars on the top of the epaulet showed flag rank.

B4: US Navy officer's button.

B5: Silver embroidered anchor, as worn on the epaulet.

B6: Marine Corps Expeditionary Ribbon with the silver "W" and Medal with the silver bar inscribed "Wake Island." This medal was awarded to all marines participating in the action at Wake Island.

B7: US Marine Corps officer's service cap insignia, bronze finish for service dress, silver for a full dress.

C: "HOLDING THE LINE"

C1: Vice Admiral Charles "Uncle Charlie" Lockwood

Vice Admiral Lockwood was Commander of Submarine Forces Pacific (COMSUBPAC). He wears the service dress blue C uniform. His coat is made of lightweight, navy blue Palm Beach (woolen) cloth. Blue service coats could be made up in serge, elastique, or lightweight material at the individual officer's option. White cotton trousers of the same material as those worn with the dress white uniform were worn in this order of dress, also with white shoes. Ribbons were worn only with service dress blue C. Unlike the army, navy ribbons were to be ½ inch in width, worn three per row with ½ inch between rows. Ribbons were worn in a specific order of precedence, with the highest in precedence on the top and to the right (when facing the wearer).

C2: Commodore Arleigh "31-knot" Burke

Commodore Burke commanded Destroyer Squadron 23 "the Little Beavers" and was chief of staff to the commander of Fast Carrier Task Force 58, Admiral Marc Matcher. Service dress white was often worn, especially in warm climates. The coat was unlined, starched cotton duck, worn over the undershirt; no shirt was worn with this coat. The trousers were also white cotton, unlined, with two hip pockets and two rear pockets with optional pocket flaps. Standard gilt US Navy buttons were worn, as on the blue service coat. These were not sewn on, however, but were removable for laundering. White lace-up shoes, either of leather or canvas, were worn with white socks. White gloves and white cap cover were authorized for wear with this uniform. Shoulder boards with the same rank distinctions as were worn on the khaki service coat were of stiff black wool, 2¼ × 5½ inches, covered with two-inch gold braid, with an anchor and rank stars in silver embroidery. The end nearest the collar was pointed and displayed a small button. Medal ribbons were almost always worn on dress whites. However, here Burke has taken the unusual step of leaving them off.

C3: Lieutenant-Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton

Lieutenant-Commander Morton was the commander of the submarine, USS Wahoo, and was one of the navy's top submarine aces. As a working uniform, the wearing of the khaki shirt and trousers without the coat was widespread. The khaki shirt was made of cotton and cut as a commercial dress shirt, with a yoke in the back panel and no shoulder straps. However, the shirt had two breast pockets with buttoned flaps. The shirt buttons were of tan composition material. Above the left breast pocket, Morton wears the submarine qualification badge. As a line officer, he wears the insignia of rank, a gold oak leaf on both collar ends. He has removed the stiff dress band from his cap. better to negotiate the narrow confines of the submarine.

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