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ROYAL AIR FORCE. COMMON CORE AND DEPLOYMENT SKILLS AIDE-MEMOIRE

FIELDCRAFT

ALERT STATES

The following codewords are used to convey warnings of possible terrorist activity in Great Britain (GB).

BIKINI

Used to warn of non-specific forms of terrorist activity.

TESSERAL

Used to warn of a threat of terrorist use of Surface to Air Missiles (SAM) and/or Anti-Aircraft Machine Guns (AAMG) against Service aircraft.

BIKINI Alert States - Definitions

There are 4 BIKINI Alert States which, in ascending order of severity, are listed and defined below:

◉ Black. The standard level of security that will always be in place to address the ever-present threat from domestic and international terrorist organisations.

◉ Black Special. Domestic or International events indicate the need for additional security to address a significant potential threat from terrorist organisations.

◉ Amber. Domestic or International events suggest that there is a heightened threat to government at this time from domestic or international terrorists seeking to act to exploit or react to these events.

◉ Red. This alert state will be applied at a location in the event of a significant security incident, such as the discovery of a suspect package or suspect vehicle. The emergency services are likely to attend at the scene.

TESSERAL Alert States - Definitions

There are 4 TESSERAL Alert States which, in ascending order of severity, are listed and defined below:

◉ Black. A general warning of possible terrorist attack against aircraft by extremists armed with man-portable SAM or AAMG without any particular target being defined. This Alert State is the minimum to be applied while terrorist organisations are assessed as posing an active threat to aircraft by SAM or AAMG attack in GB.

◉ Black Alpha. A general warning that there is an increased likelihood of extremists armed with man- portable SAM or AAMG attacking an aircraft at an unspecified location in GB.

◉ Amber. A warning that extremists armed with man- portable SAM or AAMG intend to attack an aircraft in GB in the near future. It could be issued as a general or local warning and would normally be applied for a limited period only.

◉ Red. A warning that an attack against an aircraft in GB by extremists armed with man-portable SAM or AAMG is imminent. It will normally only be issued as a local warning and for a very limited period.

The full definition of each Alert State and suite of counter- measures to be implemented is restricted information. Contact your Unit Security Officer, if further details are required.

IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICE PROCEDURES

The 4 Cs.

◉ Confirm. Location and description of the device. Do not touch or disturb it. If in doubt, treat as suspicious.

◉ Clear. Do not waste time or risk life for property. Evacuate area by the quickest route. Leave all doors open to allow EOD access.

◉ Cordon. Small IED-outto 100m (holdall). Medium IED - out to 200m (mortar blind). Large IED - out to 400m (car bomb).

◉ Control. Prevent personnel from straying into danger. Prevent evidence being disturbed or destroyed. Provide security.

CAMOUFLAGE AND CONCEALMENT

The enemy is looking for you. Do not make it easy. Merge with your surroundings.

◉ Shape. Blend in with your surroundings and lose your shape.

◉ Shadow. Keep in the shadow of a bigger object and be aware as to where your shadow is cast.

◉ Silhouette. Do not stand against a skyline or lean out of windows.

◉ Texture. Do not contrast with your surroundings or shine.

◉ Spacing. Keep spread out. Avoid regular spacing of personnel, vehicles or tents unless under cam nets.

◉ Movement. Movement must be slow and cautious.

Successful camouflage and concealment requires your self-discipline.

◉ Do not sit in the sun, but remain in shadow when in a position likely to be overlooked by an enemy.

◉ At night do not smoke, light fires or use torch light unless permission is given.

◉ Always follow track plans.

◉ Wear and replace cam cream as the threat dictates.

REACTING TO SMALL ARMS ATTACK

You need to be able to recognise an attack directed against you and take the correct actions to protect yourself, return fire if appropriate and report the contact.

TAKE COVER

◉ Dash to the nearest cover.

◉ Get down, crawl into the position and observe.

◉ Check that the weapon sight is correctly set and fire at any visible enemy (ROE permitting).

ADOPTING A FIRE POSITION

The ideal fire position offers:

◉ Full use of personal weapons.

◉ Protection from high explosive and small arms fire.

◉ Cover from view and a concealed route in and out.

◉ An unobstructed view of a wide and deep arc of fire.

UPWARD REPORTING

INITIAL WARNING

(YOUR CALL-SIGN THEN) "CONTACT WAIT OUT".

This minimises radio traffic except for further contacts and contact reports. As soon as possible a full contact report must be sent. If using a landline or other means of communication, use the same principles.

LOCATING THE FIRER

WHY THINGS ARE SEEN

◉ Shape.

◉ Shadow.

◉ Silhouette.

◉ Texture.

◉ Spacing.

◉ Movement.

SCANNING AND SEARCHING

◉ Divide ground into areas of foreground, middle distance and distance.

◉ Scan each area horizontally, starting with the foreground, using short overlapping movements.

◉ Move the head rather than just the eyes to minimise fatigue, but be aware of giving your position away by sudden movement.

NIGHT VISION

◉ Night adaptation of the eyes takes 3045 minutes.

◉ Work using red light, if suitable to the task, as this will not affect your night adaptation.

◉ Objects can be seen better at night if you do not stare straight at them. Look above, below or to the side of an object.

JUDGING DISTANCE

An object may seem closer than it actually is when:

◉ The light is bright or the sun is shining from behind you.

◉ It is bigger than the objects around it.

◉ There is dead ground between it and you.

◉ It is higher than you are.

An object may seem further away than it actually is when:

◉ The light is poor or the sun is shining in your eyes.

◉ It is smaller than the objects around it.

◉ You are looking across a valley or down a street.

◉ You are lying down.

METHODS OF JUDGING DISTANCE

UNIT OF MEASURE

◉ All the ground between you and the target must be visible to use this method.

◉ Any unit of measure that is familiar to you can be used, for example a football pitch which is approximately 100m long.

◉ Estimate how many units of this measure can be fitted between your position and the target.

◉ This method is not reliable for ranges in excess of 400m.

APPEARANCE METHOD

◉ This method compares an object with its surroundings.

◉ You must know what objects look like at various ranges.

◉ A good indication is given by the amount of detail visible.

At 100m - clear in all detail.

At 200m - clear in all detail, colour of skin and equipment identifiable.

At 300m - clear body outline, face colour visible, remaining details blurred.

AIDS TO JUDGING DISTANCE

KEY RANGES

If the distance to an area or point is already known, the distance may be used as a key range. It is possible to use the key range to judge the distance to a nearby area or object.

HALVING

Select an object or an area in a direct line, halfway between you and the target, and estimate the range to this midpoint. Double the estimation to produce the range to the target.

BRACKETING

Use one of the 2 methods of judging distance to estimate:

◉ The maximum distance to the target.

◉ The minimum distance to the target.

Take the distance to the target as midway between your maximum and minimum estimates.

TARGET INDICATION

ARC OF FIRE

This is a known area where targets are likely to be. It is indicated in the following sequence:

◉ Axis. The Centre of arc.

◉ Left and Right Arc. Indicate the extent of the arc.

◉ Reference Points. Prominent and permanent objects that are given a name and range i.e., church - bottom right corner - to be known as church - range 200.

DIRECT METHOD

Used to indicate obvious targets. The range, where to look and a description are given.

Example:

100 - half left - 2 enemy in open.

REFERENCE POINT METHOD

Used to indicate less obvious targets. It may be used together with the Direct Method and words such as above, below, slightly, left or right.

Example:

300 - gate (reference point) 1 man by each gatepost.

CLOCK-RAY METHOD

Used with an imagined clock face on a reference point to indicate difficult targets.

Example:

Signpost - left 9 o'clock - bushes - left edge of bushes - 2 enemy.

SIMPLE RANGE CARD

A simple range card only includes objects to the front of a position and is built up as follows:

◉ Accurately describe the central point from which the card has been made out.

◉ Put in the range that each circle is to represent.

◉ Choose one unmistakable object to the front, mark it on the card and draw a thick line to it. This is the setting ray.

◉ Decide on the few objects to be recorded.

◉ Fold the card, hold it level with the eye and line up the setting ray. Hold a pencil upright in the direction of the object and mark the card. Draw a line from the central point to the object and to its correct range.

◉ Against each object, print horizontally, a short description and its range.

◉ Fill in the information required, date and sign it.

DETAILED RANGE CARD

This is made if the position is permanent or one that will be occupied for a long period. It normally includes objects all around the central position. The card build up is the same as for a simple card. More accuracy is achieved by the use of a compass, protractor and map.

REACTION TO FIRE CONTROL ORDERS

Having identified a target, Fire Control Orders (FCO) are used to bring fire to bear quickly and effectively. The sequence of a FCO is as follows (GRIT):

◉ GROUP. Indicates who is being addressed: "Section", Tire Team", "Number 2 rifleman", etc.

◉ RANGE. This indicates the distance to the target, in metres: "200", "300", etc.

◉ INDICATION. This indicates where and what to look for.

◉ TYPE OF FIRE:

● Deliberate (up to 10 aimed shots a minute).

● Rapid (up to 30 aimed shots a minute).

● Bursts (approx 2-3 rounds on automatic).

TYPES OF FIRE CONTROL ORDERS

FULL

Given if there is sufficient time. "Section - 300 - signpost - left 9 o'clock - bushes - left edge of bushes - 2 enemy - fire".

BRIEF

Given when there is little time and the target is obvious. "Delta fire team - quarter right - rapid - fire".

DELAYED

Given when the movements of friendly forces or the enemy are known or can be guessed. "Section - 300 - signpost - right 3 o'clock - 2 trees - gap in trees - await my order - fire".

INDIVIDUAL

Given when it is impracticable for the commander to control the time to open fire so he passes the responsibility to the individual(s) concerned. "Number 2 and 3 - 300 - gate - enemy crossing gate left to right - watch and shoot".

Ensure that the FCO given to direct fire legally, is permitted by the Rules of Engagement in force

GROUND SENTRY

The following information and equipment must be made available to the sentry:

◉ Location of post, neighbouring posts and own backup/covering sentry.

◉ Length of stay and time of relief.

◉ Enemy situation.

◉ Arcs of observation and fire.

◉ Action on suspicious movement.

◉ Method of alerting own forces.

◉ Method of challenging.

◉ Orders for opening fire.

◉ Concealment.

◉ Friendly patrols - times out and in.

◉ Location of trip flares and intruder alarms.

◉ Password.

◉ Action on NBC attack.

◉ Equipment: Binoculars, whistle, map, compass, notebook, pen/pencil, range card, communication system and torch.

PRISONERS OF WAR (PW)

WHO IS A PW?

◉ Enemy Personnel. In or out of uniform who carry arms openly.

◉ Civilians. Who accompany the Armed Forces of the enemy, e.g., war correspondents, supply contractors, civilian members of aircraft crews.

◉ Crews. From merchant ships and civil aircraft belonging to the enemy.

ACTION ON CAPTURE

◉ Disarm.

◉ Search. All arms, equipment, maps and papers (except ID cards and ID discs) are to be removed. These are to be identified with the prisoner and the weapons (after having been made safe), evacuated with the PW whenever possible.

◉ Administer first aid. If necessary.

◉ Segregate. Officers, NCOs, Other Ranks, females from males, and juveniles (under 15) from both.

◉ Escort. To unit or sub-unit HQ as directed.

ACTION AT UNIT OR SUB-UNIT HQ

◉ Tag or label PW.

◉ Remove and tag or label: Weapons, documents or equipment captured with the PW.

◉ Do not remove: Clothing, protective equipment, personal effects, ID discs or documents, any medication, medical or religious accoutrements from medical or religious personnel.

◉ Safe custody: Treat humanely, shelter PW from enemy fire and the elements, provide food, water and protective clothing, move PW out of the combat zone as soon as possible.

◉ Do not fraternise with PW.

◉ Escort PW to collecting point.

Current UK policy is for PWs to comply with the 1949 Geneva Convention III on the treatment of PW, under which you are bound to give only 'surname, first names and rank, date of birth and any service number or failing this, equivalent information'. This information is known as the Big 4.

Additionally an individual's blood group and religion have been included on ID discs since 1907, and are therefore freely available to a captor.

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