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ANTONY PRESTON, JOHN BATCHELOR
THE SUBMARINE SINCE 1919

American Depth-charge Projector. A later development of the British wartime depth-charge thrower. Basically a spigot mortar, two or three would be mounted on each side of a ship, and set to project a pattern of charges

However, the most potent anti-submarine weapon which has emerged is the submarine herself. She has many advantages, and they are multiplied by nuclear propulsion. Because she operates below the surface a nuclear hunter-killer suffers no reduction of speed from bad weather, and she can either use a thermal layer for her own protection or simply pass through it. She is her own sonar platform, with performance as good as her opponent's, and if she goes deep the pressure of water will reduce the noise of cavitation from her propeller. Her main problem that she is operating in a semi-blind situation, and does not have the easy communication enjoyed by surface warships, but this is a small problem to set against her undoubted abilities as a submarine-killer. Here again, we should not be surprised to see a radical improvement within the next few years.

British 3-in Submarine Gun. The 3-in High-Angle gun was fitted to wartime submarines of the "S" and "U" Classes to provide defense against aircraft, but it was also useful against land targets or small vessels not worth a torpedo

At this point we leave the submarine. She is at the height of her powers, having developed from a crude submersible torpedo-boat to a giant warship capable of cruising at will beneath the surface of the sea. History shows that every weapon is eventually displaced by a new one, but for the moment the submarine has no challenger.

The Hedgehog. The original Hedgehog was refined, and by the end of the war was a very elaborate weapon. This was the US Navy's version, but in essence it is the same spigot mortar firing a cluster of contact-fused bombs ahead of the ship

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